Sometimes your bladder may not empty completely. This can lead to symptoms of fullness or discomfort, leakage of urine due to an overly full bladder, and recurrent urinary tract infections. Causes can include:
- Obstruction to the flow of urine either by prolapse or following surgical repair
- Weak bladder muscles
- Nerve damage due to certain diseases or spinal cord injury
- Certain medications
To determine the cause, a complete history and physical exam is necessary. Urodynamic and other imaging testing with fluoroscopy may assist in understanding how your bladder is emptying, and likely will improve your diagnosis. Treatments may include physical therapy, surgical interventions or medications.